If these explanations are correct, however, they should follow naturally
from playing the position out. They do not. They are unnatural
explanations that one must resort to when both sides refuse to play
first. If both sides are allowed to refuse to play first, a rigorous
demonstration that any explanation is correct becomes impossible. The
Japanese practice is to let the game end as in Dia. 2-12-9 and give
White three points. If another black stone is added, as in Dia. 2-12-10,
then White gets two additional points. Dia. 2-12-10 is therefore
regarded as five points of territory for White.
This practice is endorsed by the precedents of the Nihon Kiin. Under
area rules (described later) the position can also be worth three
points, with the noteworthy feature that this conclusion is arrived at
in a natural way. The question of three points without capturing is
important in showing the character of a set of rules, because with some
rules it can also become two points.